White Papers and Technical Insights

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Improving The Reliability of Analytical And Sampling Systems in Corrosive Environments

This paper presents laboratory corrosion and chemical inertness test results of SilcoTek’s CVD coatings, and evaluates their performance in environments common to hydrocarbon processing.

How to Remove Rust from Stainless Steel Before Coating

This paper summarizes methods used by SilcoTek to remove rust from stainless steel surfaces.

Improving Corrosion Resistance and Sampling Reliability with Inert-Coated Tubing

Testing was conducted to determine the relative corrosion resistance of Hastelloy C-22, commercial 316L SS, commercial tube with fused silica coating.

Coating for Corrosion & Metal Ion Contamination (ASMC 2017 Paper)

This paper discusses how silicon barrier coatings improve corrosion resistance and prevent metal contamination in semiconductor etch processes.

Technical Insight: Corrosion Rate Evaluation of SilcoTek Coatings

This Technical Insight focuses on using an electrochemical method to gain corrosion rate information.

Technical Insight: Protection Against Organic Solvent Metal Ion Leaching

This Technical Insight will investigate whether Dursan and other SilcoTek coatings can prevent metal ions from leaching into pure organic solvents.

Technical Insight: Protection Against Metal Ion Contamination from Titanium and Stainless Steel

In this study titanium is investigated as a substrate for SilcoTek’s coating prevention of metal ion leaching.

Technical Insight: Organic Solvent Metal Ion Leaching, C-22 Hastelloy

In this Technical Insight we investigate the corrosion and metal contamination of C-22 in pure methanol and the impact that SilcoTek coatings have on this corrosion. 

Technical Insight: Metal Ion Leaching in Deionized Water

We test ultrapure DI water to see if the corrosion patterns follow the methanol studies.

Technical Insight: Acetonitrile Metal Ion Leaching

We test HPLC grade acetonitrile for metal ion leaching to see how it may compare to other typical solvents.

Technical Insight: Alloy MP35N Metal Ion Leaching

We investigate the metal ion leaching of MP35N in pure methanol, water, and acetonitrile. 

Technical Insight: Sodium Hydroxide, Base Exposure Resistance Testing

This Technical Insight explores the impact of 5% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution on four SilcoTek coatings.

Adsorption Desorption Effects And Their Influence On Process Analytical Measurements

This paper presents laboratory corrosion and chemical inertness test results for a variety of chemically deposited coatings.

Performance of Total Sulfur Analysis in Refinery Flare Vent Gas Systems

This paper will discuss the method to extract and sample the process stream with minimal loss or adsorption of the analyte and provide data for on-line total sulfur and HHV analysis.

Presentation: A Review of Coatings Used to Improve Reliability in Sampling Equipment

Learn about SilcoNert 2000 applications and benefits.

Presentation: The Analysis of Trace Level Sulfurs in Beverage Grade CO2

A review of packed column analysis of sulfur in beverage grade CO2.

Presentation: The Preparation of Low Concentration Hydrogen Sulfide Standards

Learn about sulfur adsorption rate in stainless steel sample cylinders and how to minimize sample loss.  

Presentation: Analysis of Low-Level 1ppb to 20ppb Reactive Sulfurs in Air Sample

Analysis of low level sulfur stability in air sampling canisters and sampling cylinders.  Sulfur VOC analysis in 1-20 ppbv range.

Presentation: Trace Level Sulfur Analysis in Refinery, Beverage and Environmental Applications

A review of trace level analysis of sulfur in refinery, beverage grade CO2, and environmental emissions analysis applications.

Presentation: The Do's and Don’ts in the Analysis of Sulfur for Polyolefin Producers

Get tips on how to accurately sample and test trace sulfur in GC analytical systems for refinery and process applications.

Presentation: Evaluation of System Surfaces in Low Level Sulfur Analysis

An overview of coating performance for sulfur analysis, active compound analysis, corrosion resistance, moisture resistance, UHV, and anti-coking applications.

Advanced Gassification Mercury/Trace Metal Control With Monolith Traps

This paper discusses ways to test mercury emissions from syngas sorbent samples.  Inert coatings are used to minimize adsorption.

Mercury Management and Chemical Decontamination

This whitepaper presents data from two separate analytical and chemical bench tests, designed to first measure baseline mercury mass and concentrations and then quantify the subsequent reductions from chemical processes as measured primarily by atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

Presentation: Comparision of Surface Composition on Stability of Mercury Transfer and Holding

This presentation will discuss the need for inert system components when testing mercury.  Prevent mercury loss and surface adsorption during holding and transfer.

Sampling and Analytical Methods

This paper discusses development of an arsine gas, selenium (as hydrogen selenide), and mercury (as elemental mercury) Analytical Method for Reducing Flue Gas Environments.  A sampling protocol will be developed including sample-conditioning solutions that will convert the desired species into a form suitable for CEMs. 

Presentation: Adsorption of Ammonia on Metal and Polymer Surfaces

This presentation compares adsorption rates of ammonia on metal, coated metal, and polymer surfaces.

Improving Ammonia Reference Standards with Inert Coatings

 In this report, researchers tested a number of different cylinder types by performing a series of decant tests at the 100 and 10 µmol/mol levels.  They showed that adsorption of ammonia molecules on cylinder walls was minimised when the internal surfaces of stainless steel cylinders were passivated using the SilcoNert2000® treatment.

Presentation: The Use of Coatings to Improve Reliability for Ammonia

This presentation discusses multiple design factors to maximize system performance and reliability.  Including surface inertness in ammonia sampling and other applications.

Technical Insight: SilcoNert 2000 on Aluminum for Measuring Ammonia

Researchers looking to develop an ammonia detection system investigated the use of anodized aluminum and SilcoNert 2000 coated aluminum.

Technical Insight: Iodine Vapor Exposure Testing of SilcoTek Coatings

NASA has developed an experiment to study the interaction between iodine and a variety of common spacecraft materials. In their tests, they have included Silcolloy® and Dursan®-coated coupons for evaluation.

Technical Insight: Enhance Sensitivity, Reliability, Reproducbility and Accuracy of Analytical Instruments

This paper presents laboratory corrosion and chemical inertness test results of SilcoTek’s CVD coatings, and evaluates their performance in environments common to the petrochemical, refining and off-shore industries.

Presentation: Passivation of Components Used for Sample Transfer and Holding

This presentation reviews sampling methods and results for trace level analysis of sulfur and sulfur containing compounds in various applications.

Mass Transport in Sample Transport Lines Adsorption Desorption Effects And Their Influence On Process Analytical Measurement

This paper will discuss theoretical and practical analysis of factors and design guidelines used to minimize sample loss and adsorption in analytical sampling systems.

Technical Insight: Characterizing the Performance of Surface Modifications that Enhance Sensitivity, Reliability, Reproducbility and Accuracy of Analytical Instruments

This Technical Insight presents laboratory corrosion and chemical inertness test results of SilcoTek’s CVD coatings, and evaluates their performance in environments common to the petrochemical, refining and off-shore industries.

Comparative Analysis of Tekmar 3000 and 3100 Purge and Trap Sample Concentrators

 A comprehensive study is performed of SilcoTek coated and uncoated surfaces utilized on both the Tekmar 3100 and Tekmar 3000 Sample Concentrators and the results are compared.

Technical Insight: Relative Response Time of TrueTube™ When Measuring Moisture Content in a Sample Stream

This Technical Insight will determine relative response times of commercial 316L SS tubing, electropolished 316L SS tubing, and SilcoNert® coated electropolished 316L SS tubing for the transmission of sample streams containing low concentrations of moisture.

Characterizing Performance and Reliability in Analytical Instruments

This paper presents laboratory corrosion and chemical inertness test results for a variety of chemically deposited coatings.

Contact Angle Evaluation of SilcoTek Depositions

 This report will evaluate and discuss the significance of contact angle data for two different liquids on a variety of SilcoTek surfaces. SilcoNert 2000, SilcoKlean, Silcolloy, Dursan and a Dursan-based prototype will be highlighted.

Technical Insight: Relative Response Time When Measuring Moisture Content in a Sample Stream

This report will determine relative response times of commercial 316L SS tubing, electropolished 316L SS tubing, and SilcoNert®-coated electropolished 316L SS tubing for the transmission of sample streams containing low concentrations of moisture.

A Comparison of Coatings Used to Enhance the Moisture Performance of Analyzer Flow Paths

This paper will review test data and recommend coating compatibility for moisture and moisture related adsorptive effects in continuous emission monitor (CEM) flow paths.

How to Effectively Remove Light Rust From Stainless Steel Surfaces

This report discusses methods for removing rust from stainless steel surfaces.

Electronic Property Characterization of SilcoTek Coatings

This report tests and discusses the electrical properties of SilcoTek coatings.

Impact of Substrate Imperfections on the Appearance of SilcoTek’s Coatings

This whitepaper discusses the various types of surface defects that contribute to an imperfect coating appearance, and how SilcoTek may or may not be able to improve the appearances on these parts.

Selection Guide, Sample Transport Tubing

This guide highlights factors to consider when selecting tubing and surface properties for sample transport in analytical applications.

Coating Electropolished Surfaces

This whitepaper discusses electropolish frosting and it's effect on coating quality.

Material Characterization Capabilities

This white paper aims to provide a brief introduction of different materials characterization techniques available to SilcoTek, both in-house and through Penn State University, to give our customers a glimpse of the possibilities. 

Characterization of Novel Carboxysilane Depositions on Stainless Steel Substrates

This presentation highlights the performance of Dursan coated surfaces in various applications including moisture analysis, inertness, and corrosion resistance.

Solder & Braze Technical Insight

This Technical Insight provides information about brazing and soldering as well as guidelines for treating brazed or soldered parts with SilcoTek’s chemical vapor deposition coating process.

Autoclave and Steam Impact to SilcoTek Coatings

This Technical Insight is a summary of findings on the effect of autoclave exposure on various surfaces offered by Silcotek, using contact angles, thickness, and FT-IR spectroscopy as characterization methods.

Technical Insight: Protein Resistant Properties of a Chemical Vapor Deposited Coating

The authors of this paper examined Dursan® as an alternative coating solution that may prevent non-specific protein adsorption to surfaces.

Technical Insight: SilcoTek Protective Coatings in a Venusian (Pure Supercritical CO2) Atmosphere

This Technical Insight discusses NASA's efforts to study coatings for protection against supercritical CO2 atmospheres found in nuclear plants or in a Venusian atmosphere. 

Coating Anodized Aluminum Surfaces Technical Insight

This Technical insight will discuss the impact of anodization and hard anodization on aluminum surface finish, and how they may affect the success of SilcoTek’s coating processes. 

Emissivity of SilcoTek Coatings on Elgiloy

This Technical Insight will discuss how our coatings impact Elgiloy (cobalt, chrome, nickel alloy) and its emissivity to solar radiation.

SilcoTek Coatings in Oxygen Service

This Technical Insight will discuss the suitability of SilcoTek coatings for use in oxygen service applications.

Mechanical testing of Coated, Uncoated, and Thermal Treated 316 SS

This Technical Insight studies metallurgical testing of tensile strength, impact resistance and hardness on untreated 316 stainless steel, Dursan coated 316 stainless, and 316 stainless exposed to the Dursan heat profile under a nitrogen atmosphere.

Improved Thermal Stability of Silcolloy Coating

This Technical Insight discusses SilcoTek’s recent improvements on this front to deliver a more thermally stable Silcolloy coating. 

Impact of Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) on SilcoTek's Coating Properties

This Technical Insight will discuss details of why certain EDM processes are incompatible with our coating technology.

Analysis of Solid Deposits from Thermal Stressing of a JP-8 Fuel on Different Surfaces in a Flow Reactor

This paper discusses how SilcoTek coatings perform under carbon fouling conditions.

Deposition from High Temperature Jet Fuels

This paper explores mitigating thermal stability problems, where a single-tube heat exchanger is used to assess thermal-oxidative and pyrolytic deposition from high temperature jet fuels.

Presentation: High Heat Sink Fuels Program

This presentation discusses how SilcoTek coatings help to minimize carbon fouling under test conditions of JP-8 fuels.

Penn State Multi-Discipline Tribology Group and Energy Institute Studies

This study discusses the impact of coatings and various fuels have on carbon fouling and soot formation in various test engines.

Presentation: High Vacuum Applications of Silicon-Based Coatings on Stainless Steel

This presentation compares the outgassing rate and pump down of coated and uncoated stainless steel UHV chambers.

Coating for Corrosion & Metal Ion Contamination

This paper discusses how SilcoTek silicon barrier coatings protect against corrosion in high purity applications.

Presentation: Low Outgassing of Silicon-Based Coatings on Stainless Steel Surfaces for Vacuum Applications

This presentation compares the pump down rate of coated and uncoated UHV chambers.  

Use of Inert CVD Coating for Protein, Corrosion, and Moisture Resistance in Bioanalysis Applications

This paper will introduce Dursan® [1, 2], a siliconoxygen-carbon (carboxysilicon) coating that provides biochemical inertness, a low affinity for adsorbing proteins and other bio-molecules, corrosion resistance, and low energy properties to stainless steel and other substrates.

Technical Insight: Protein Resistant Properties of Dursan

The authors of this paper examined Dursan® as an alternative coating solution to minimize protein binding and surface adsorption.

Technical Insight: Dursan Process Achieves USP Class VI Certification

This Technical Insight will discuss the details of this test, and the results of an investigation into samples that were coated with Dursan and subjected to Class VI testing.

Technical Insight: Dursan’s Use in the Food and Beverage Industry: A Walk Through of the Beer Brewing Process

In this Technical Insight we will focus on what a coating could potentially do in the food and beverage industry if metal ions can be blocked from entering the product.

Biomass Waste to Jet Fuels: How Dursan Assists in Making New Sustainable Fuels

This Technical Insight will explore a recent publication that investigates kinetics and reactor design for the ketonization process and where Dursan can aid in better conversion rates.

Coating Parts with Silver Plating

This paper discusses the compatibility of silver plating with the SilcoNert coating process. 

What's the Advantage of Preheating my Stainless Steel Parts for Coating Service?

SilcoTek recommends customers who use coated stainless-steel parts in high temperature applications (over 450°C) to preheat the parts prior to sending them in for coating. This recommendation was based primarily on the knowledge of metal sensitization but lacked actual data support. This technical insight provides experimental data to show when and how preheating before coating may benefit high temperature applications.